Leitura para o fim-de-semana: a fortuna escondida dos comunistas chineses

Há seis meses um pequeno grupo de jornalistas de várias nacionalidades reuniu-se em Hong Kong. Muitos não se conheciam. Tinham apenas uma coisa em comum: pertenciam ao International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Estavam ali com uma missão: investigar os registos de cidadãos chineses numa base de dados gigantesca com os dados de clientes de offshores. Desde então tiveram de ultrapassar dificuldades linguísticas, diferenças horárias e a pressão das autoridades chinesas. O resultado foi publicado esta semana: quase 22 mil chineses – incluíndo 15 dos mais ricos do país – acumularam fortunas que esconderam em paraísos fiscais. A notícia foi divulgada pelos jornais portugueses, mas vale a pena ler o original.

w640

Leaked Records Reveal Offshore Holdings of China’s Elite

By Marina Walker Guevara, www.icij.org
“Close relatives of China’s top leaders have held secretive offshore companies in tax havens that helped shroud the Communist elite’s wealth, a leaked cache of documents reveals.

The confidential files include details of a real estate company co-owned by current President Xi Jinping’s brother-in-law and British Virgin Islands companies set up by former Premier Wen Jiabao’s son and also by his son-in-law.

Nearly 22,000 offshore clients with addresses in mainland China and Hong Kong appear in the files obtained by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.  Among them are some of China’s most powerful men and women — including at least 15 of China’s richest, members of the National People’s Congress and executives from state-owned companies entangled in corruption scandals.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, UBS and other Western banks and accounting firms play a key role as middlemen in helping Chinese clients set up trusts and companies in the British Virgin Islands, Samoa and other offshore centers usually associated with hidden wealth, the records show. For instance, Swiss financial giant Credit Suisse helped Wen Jiabao’s son create his BVI company while his father was leading the country.

The files come from two offshore firms — Singapore-based Portcullis TrustNet and BVI-based Commonwealth Trust Limited — that help clients create offshore companies, trusts and bank accounts. They are part of a cache of 2.5 million leaked files that ICIJ has sifted through with help from more than 50 reporting partners in Europe, North America, Asia and other regions.

Since last April, ICIJ’s stories have triggered official inquiries, high-profile resignations and policy changes around the world.

Until now, the details on China and Hong Kong had not been disclosed.

The data illustrates the outsized dependency of the world’s second largest economy on tiny islands thousands of miles away.  As the country has moved from an insular communist system to a socialist/capitalist hybrid, China has become a leading market for offshore havens that peddle secrecy, tax shelters and streamlined international deal making.

Every corner of China’s economy, from oil to green energy and from mining to arms trading, appears in the ICIJ data.

Chinese officials aren’t required to disclose their assets publicly and until now citizens have remained largely in the dark about the parallel economy that can allow the powerful and well-connected to avoid taxes and keep their dealings secret. By some estimates, between $1 trillion and $4 trillion in untraced assets have left the country since 2000.

The growing onshore and offshore wealth of China’s elites “may not be strictly illegal,” but it is often tied to “conflict of interest and covert use of government power,” said Minxin Pei, a political scientist at Claremont McKenna College in California. “If there is real transparency, then the Chinese people will have a much better idea of how corrupt the system is [and] how much wealth has been amassed by government officials through illegal means.”

Top-level corruption is a politically sensitive issue in China as the country’s economy cools and its wealth gap continues to widen.  The country’s leadership has cracked down on journalists who have exposed the hidden wealth of top officials and their families as well as citizens who have demanded that government officials disclose their personal assets.

In November, a mainland Chinese news organization that was working with ICIJ to analyze the offshore data withdrew from the reporting partnership, explaining that authorities had warned it not to publish anything about the material.”

O artigo completo está aqui.

Agora é a nossa vez de investigar as offshore

Durante um ano, mais de 100 repórteres do International Consortium of Investigative Journalists analisaram milhões de documentos com dados relacionados com paraísos fiscais nas Ilhas virgens Britânicas, Ilhas Caimão, Ilhas Cook e Singapura. A chamado Offshore Leaks deu origem a investigações governamentais e a iniciativas legislativas para tornar mais transparente esta realidade. Os documentos contém os nomes, empresas e moradas de milhares de pessoas que utilizam contas offshore para esconder fortunas e património. O seu simples uso não é ilegal. Mas o carácter secreto destes paraísos fiscais tornam-nos muito atraentes para quem os quiser usar para fins menos claros. Agora, o ICIJ decidiu colocar online a base de dados onde qualquer pessoa pode entrar nesta avalancha de informação através de uma pesquisa pelo nome, empresa ou nacionalidade. O objectivo é que seja o público a fornecer informação que tenha passado despercebida aos repórteres. Podem aceder-lhe aqui.

Nos bastidores da maior investigação jornalística dos últimos anos

Há pouco mais de um mês, o International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) começou a divulgar o chamado Offshore Leaks: os segredos bem guardados de milionários que usam paraísos fiscais para esconder as suas fortunas e propriedades. Recentemente, em Portugal, o Expresso juntou-se ao projecto.  Nesta reportagem da CBC News, o jornalista e director do ICIJ, Gerard Ryle, explica como recebeu o disco rígido com uma quantidade tão grande de informação – 2.5 milhões de documentos – que parecia impossível de decifrar e como uma equipa de jornalistas espalhados pelo mundo investigou milhares de nomes durante 15 meses.